International Symposium of 50th anniversary of the death
of Prof. Dr. Jan Czochralski (1953-2003) Toruń and Kcynia, April 26-27, 2003

International Symposium of 50th Anniversary of the Death of prof. dr Jan Czochralski

Stanisław Krukowski President Elect of the Polish Society for Crystal Growth
Professor at the High Pressure Center, Warsaw, Poland

Organization

The International Symposium of 50th Anniversary of the Death of prof. dr Jan Czochralski was held on April 26th -April 27th 2003 in Torun and Kcynia, Poland. The symposium was organized by Polish Society of Crystal Growth (PSCG), Institute of Physics of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Community and Town of Kcynia, with cooperation of German Society for Crystal Growth. The honorary patronage has been accepted by President of the Republic of Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski.

Sponsors

The Symposium has been supported by the following Sponsors: State Committee for Scientific Research of Poland (KBN), Warsaw University of Technology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, German Society for Crystal Growth, Umicore Belgium and Committee of Crystallography of Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS). The generous help extended by the Sponsors is gratefully acknowledged.

Committees

The Symposium was organized by the Organizing Committee: chair - president of PSCG prof. dr A. Pajączkowska of Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (IEMT), co-chair Prof. drH. Męczynska from Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń and co-chair member of the City Council of Kcynia Mr. J. Kurant.

Honorary Committee of the Symposium included: prof. dr. hab. M. Kleiber, Minister of Science and Chairman of KBN, prof. dr hab. A. Legocki President of Polish Academy of Sciences, prof. dr K.H. Auh President of Asian Society of Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology, dr A. Bukowski President of Cemat Silicon S.A. Warsaw, prof. dr hab. S. Chwirot Director of Institute of Physics of Nicolaus Copernicus University, prof. dr hab. R.R. Gałazka Director of Institute of Physics of PAS, prof. dr hab. M. Grabski President of Foundation for Polish Science, prof. dr. M. Heuken President of German Society for Crystal Growth, prof. dr hab. M. Kolwas President of Polish Physical Society, prof. dr hab. J. Kopcewicz Rector of Nicolaus Copernicus University, dr. Z. Łuczyński Director of IEMT, prof. dr hab. K. Łukaszewicz president of Committee of Crystallography of PAS, prof. dr hab. M. Mańkowski Rector of Warsaw University of Technology, prof. dr hab. B. Mróż Vice-Rector of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, prof. dr. hab. W. Schröder Director of Institute for crystal growth in Berlin Germany, dr. P. Siffert General Secretary of European Materials Research Society (EMRS), Mr T. Szczepaniak Mayor of the Community and Town of Kcynia, prof. dr hab. H. Szymczak Head of Section III - Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Sciences of PAS, prof. dr hab. W.K. Włosiński Head of Section IV - Technical Sciences of PAS.

Scientific Presentations

The fist day of the Symposium, Saturday April 26th 2003 was entirely devoted to the scientific presentations. It consisted of three Sessions: Introductory, chaired by prof. dr Hanna Męczyńska, Morning Session chaired by dr. hab. D. Klimm and Afternoon Session Chaired by dr hab. S. Krukowski.

The Introductory Session started with the Opening Ceremony Lecture given by prof. dr hab. J. Kopcewicz. Prof. Kopcewicz has concentrated on some aspects of the scientific work which is beneficial for society. He stressed that many European and National Agencies has asked and appreciated this particular aspect of the scientific activity. He has presented Jan Czochralski as an example of such attitude to the work - his scientific achievement has an immediate influence on the technology yet his results resisted the time passage - even today electronics is based on the ideas developed by him almost a century ago. He has called also other scientific achievements such as Luis Pasteur discovery of molecular chirality. After 100 years this factor was called upon to explain the tragedy of thalidomide victims. Also other face of this problem has attracted his attention, namely the attitude of the society towards scientific research. In this context the contrast between US and Brazil programs of development of solar energy sources was invoked. US supported basic science expecting that the applications soon arrive whereas Brazil stressed importance of applications.

The second contribution to the Introductory Session was the lecture of prof. Kurzydłowski. He has represented Warsaw University of Technology, the academic institution where prof. Czochralski has passed all of his academic life in Poland. Prof. Kurzydlowski gave broad perspective of prof. Czochralski life and achievements. Starting from his biographical details he then passed to the contribution to science. In that respect he mentioned a number of scientific results and methods, such as crystallization method, recrystallization of severely deformed materials being foundation of present day understanding of plasticity or surface apparatus, closely resembling present day AFM machines. Summarizing he pointed out that prof. Czochralski was author of more than 100 scientific papers, a number of patents. His services included also the presidency of German Metallurgical Society.

The Morning Session was devoted to the application of Czochralski method to growth of large size semiconductor crystals. It has started by the discussion of the growth of silicon crystals by dr Erich Tomzig representing Wacker Siltronic, Germany, the leading European manufacturer of silicon. It has been mentioned that Czochralski method is used to about 99% of industrial silicon single crystals, basis of present day electronics. The method is in continuous development, allowing to grow large size dislocation-free crystals. The present standard size is 12 inch crystals. That leads to relatively heavy ingots of the charge of about 450 kg. Also some additional modifications were discussed such as magnetic CZ technique. For comparison germanium growth was presented by dr Ben Depuydt of Umicore Belgium. He presented historical review of the germanium applications starting from the MIT Radiation Lab's rectyfier, developed in 1942, through Bell Lab's point-contact transistor (1947) to junction transistor (1948). This required growth of good quality crystals, which was mastered by Teal and Little, in the first application of CZ method to growth of semiconductors. Since then the growth of Ge crystals was developed to present day standard 8 inch crystals. Then more complicated aspect of growth of compond semiconductors was tackled: GaAs andInP. GaAs was discussed by dr Manfred Jurisch from Freiberger Compounds Materials GmbH, the leader in Europe GaAs market. It has been mentioned that CZ method covers about 50% of the market with other methods such as gradient-freeze or Bridgman having the rest. Righ now Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) method using Be2O3 beeing the industrial standard providing 150 mm diameter crystals. Competitors such as Vertical Bridgman (VB) also provide about the same share. Finally CZ aspect was considered by dr Andrzej Hruban from Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (IEMT), the leading Polish manufacturer of the single crystals of semiconductors. The various aspects were discussed staring from the growth technique to optimization allowing to obtain large size, 2 inch InP crystals. Finally the Session was finished by prof. dr hab. Marek Grinberg discussion of spectroscopy of transition metal and rare earth doped oxide monocrystals.

The Afternoon Session started by the lecture of prof. Tsuguo Fukuda for Tohoku University, Sendai Japan. He has discussed interesting subject of the growth of large size fluoride crystals. Both growth methods and applications were covered. He showed number of high quality crystals, including CaF2 LiCaAlF6 (LICAF) and perovskite-type KMgF3 and BaLiF3 crystals. He finished with 1-3 inch size LiYF4 and LiLuF4 crystals. The second tier of the Session was the lecture by prof. Marek Berkowski form Institute of Physics of PAS, Warsaw. He discussed various problems in growth of oxide crystals. He started from intricate problem of the chemical composition of the source and the obtained crystals. As pointed out, a combination of thermodynamic data and computer modeling allowed to obtain good quality large size oxide crystals. As in the previous Session this one was also finished by discussion of the properties of oxide crystals, given by prof. Andrzej Wojtowicz from Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. This lecture gave a deep insight into fascinating problem of application scintillator crystals. As proved the field is quickly developing, promising to obtain interesting results in near future.

Poster Presentation were the last addition to that day. In 30 posters a very broad spectrum of interesting topics was presented, starting from the theoretical studies of crystal growth habits by dr Jolanta Prywer through growth of various crystals such as GaN by B.Łucznik et al or oxides(e.e Novosselov et al., Kruczek et al.) or micro- and nano-materials by dr Dorota Pawlak et el. and finishing be demonstration of devices such as blue laser by dr hab. Michał Leszczyński from High Pressure Research Center PAS. A number of posters were devoted to characterization such as x-ray by W. Paszkowicz et al. W. Gryk et al. or F. Firszt et al. It is unfortunate that only a fraction of these interesting contributions can be mentioned.

Finally this day has been finished by dinner in Dąbskich Palace, where in friendly atmosphere the participant could exchange their impressions after so rich day.

Commemoration of prof. Czochralski

The second day was entirely devoted to the visit in Kcynia, the birthplace of prof Czchralski, and also the place of his eternal rest. The session was chaired by Mr Jan Kurant and Mayor of the Community and the Town Kcynia, Mr Tomasz Szczepaniak

The day started by the Catholic Mass in the Church under Invocation of Saint Mary" commemorating the memory of late Jan Czochralski followed by the homage at Jan Czochralski grave.

In the following a reception at the Jan Czochraski shool allowed the participant to contact the inhabitants of Kcynia. A pleasant part was the opportunity to visit Jan Czochralski Museum in the school named Jan Czochralski and conducted by Michal Poczobut, Director of the School. After that the statue of Jan Czochralski was unveiled by Mayor of Kcynia Town and the youngest representative of prof. Jan Czochralski family, Adama Nowackiego. During ceremony, the lecture "Jan Czochralski, Kcynian, the son of Pałuki land has been given by Magdalena Stachowiak, reviving the memories of the great son of Kcynia.

In the afternoon the participants were transferred to Grocholin Castle, where the welcome ceremony took place, followed by the performance of the folk band "Pałuki". Finally the dinner and closing ceremony finished the rich events of the second day of the Symposium.

Stanisław Krukowski
CBW PAN
01-152 Warszawa
Sokołowska 29/37