Chairpersons' Preface 13th International Conference on Crystal Growth
It was 1994 when we started discussing a proposal to host the 13th International Conference on Crystal Growth (ICCG-13) in 2001. Among several candidates for the site of the conference, we chose Doshisha University in Kyoto. Our proposal was discussed and approved at the IOCG Executive Committee meeting, the Council meeting, and finally at the General Assembly held during ICCG-11 (1995) in the Netherlands. After this decision, we established ICCG-13 Working Committee within the Japanese Association for Crystal Growth (JACG), and we applied for co-sponsorships from the Japan Society of Applied Physics and the Science Council of Japan. The applications were accepted respectively in 1998 and 1999. The Science Council of Japan gives co-sponsorships to only eight international conferences every year, their selection of ICCG-13 after such strong competition means that crystal growth was recognized as a very important field by the Science Council of Japan.
Just after this decision, we received a proposal for the co-organization with the 11th International Conference on Vapor Growth and Epitaxy (ICVGE-11). After discussing this proposal in the Working Committee, we decided to accept the proposal because the joint organization would expand the range of participants and strengthen the traditionally weak parts of ICCG such as thin film growth and epitaxy. We decided that the name of the conference would be as the Thirteenth International Conference of Crystal Growth in conjunction with the Eleventh International Conference on Vapor Growth and Epitaxy (ICCG-13/ICVGE-11). We also got 18 scientific societies and associations to cooperate with ICCG-13/ICVGE-11 including the Association of Synthetic Crystal Science and Technology, the Crystallographic Society of Japan, the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, the Japan Institute of Metals, the Physical Society of Japan. The conference was supported by the Ministry of Education, Sports, Culture, Science and Technology, Japan.
From its start in 1966, ICCG had previously been held twice in Japan, namely ICCG-4 in 1974 in Tokyo and ICCG-9 in 1989 in Sendai. ICCG-13 is the third ICCG conference to be held in Japan. On the other hand, ICVGE was held for the first time in Zurich in 1970 and also twice in Japan, in 1978 (ICVGE-4) and in 1991 (ICVGE-7), both times in Nagoya. The ICCG conference in Jerusalem in 1998 was the first ICCG conference that was organized jointly with ICVGE. The result generated a large number of abstracts and participants. We wished to follow their success.
Under the strong recession that spread all over the world, we were very much concerned that we would not get abstracts and participants. Hence, we send a large number of the Call for Papers all over the world including those sent by e-mail to the members of nearly all national associations of IOCG. We appreciate the help from these national associations. Due to all these efforts, we got the applications for the presentation as large as 1320. This number is the largest in the history of ICCG. However, we found also that among the applications, there were a large number of scientists in countries from which they might not get supports. Hence, we established a program to support such scientists as much as possible. Since we foresaw that there might be more cancellations than that of most international conferences, we sent e-mails to all speakers to confirm their attendance at the conference just before we made the final program. Among the initial 1320 applications, 183 were rejected or canceled, the remaining 1137 presentations were listed in the final program and included in the abstract book.
Initially, we planned to hold the conference at Doshisha's Tanabe campus because they have excellent rooms and facilities. However, it turned out that there are not enough hotels in the Tanabe district and the access from Kyoto Station is not convenient. Hence, we changed the conference site to Doshisha's Imadegawa campus, which is in the middle of Kyoto City.
Just before ICCG-13/ICVGE-11 in Kyoto, the 11th International Summer School on Crystal Growth(ISSCG-11) was held in the Doshisha Biwako Retreat Center from July 24 to 29. The center is on the west shoreline of Lake Biwa and many participants enjoyed swimming at the lake. The center was build very recently and was equipped with new facilities. They have Japanese style tatami rooms, single rooms, double rooms, cottages for participants to stay, modern lecture rooms, and a large dining hall. The school program consisted of 24 lectures from fundamental crystal growth theory to modern industrial crystal growth technologies. The school text was published by Elsevier and given to all participants during the school session. The total number of participants was 123 including lecturers and 9 accompanying persons. Seven young participants have received financial support.
ICCG-13/ICVGE-11 was held from July 30 to August 4, 2001. In the evening of the first day, the conference reception was held in University Hall (Daigaku Kaikan). The hall was filled with 600-700 participants, and enough meals and drinks were served. We had a very pleasant time of talks with old and new friends. The opening ceremony was on the morning of the 31st. After the welcome address by the ICCG-13 chairperson, addresses were given by Prof. H. Yoshikawa, president of the Science Council of Japan, Prof. E. Hatta, president of Doshisha University, and Prof. R. Kern, the past president of IOCG. The telegram sent by J. Koizumi, the Prime Minister of Japan was read by General Secretary of the conference.
The program was composed of Topical and General Sessions. We had chosen eight current topics as follows:
- T01 Self-assembled nanostructures for quantum dots
- T02 Wide band gap materials (1) Nitride
- T03 Wide band gap materials (2) SiC and diamond
- T04 Epitaxial growth of magnetic semiconductors and related structures
- T05 Melt growth fundamentals
- T06 Multinary compounds
- T07 Ferroelectric thin films
- T08 Phase field models of solidification and pattern formation
It was shown that there are many fundamental growth physics existing in the most advanced topics in industry.
In addition to the topical sessions, we had the following general sessions:
- G01 Fundamentals of crystal growth - Theory and experiment
- G02 Bulk crystals
- G03 Oxide and fluoride crystals
- G04 Thin film and epitaxial growth
- G05 Industrial crystallization
- G06 Protein and biological crystallization
- G07 Growth under microgravity and flows
- G08 Surfaces and interfaces
- G09 Characterization and in situ monitoring
- G10 Novel materials
- G11 Crystal growth general
- G12 Growth technology
- G13 Film and video
We had seven plenary talks in which three were of IOCG award lectures. The plenary session just after the opening was started by the talk of Dr. L. J. DeLucas of Alabama University on protein crystal growth in space. Dr. DeLucas was a payload specialist of NASA and conducted the space experiments by himself. The second speaker was Prof. I. Akasaki who talked about nitride semiconductors and their impact on the future world. Prof. Akasaki has succeeded for the first time in the world to grow high quality GaN by using low temperature buffer layer and to grow also for the first time p-type GaN by doping it with Mg. This success made it possible to produce p-n junction GaN diodes and to fabricate nitride laser diodes. Prof. Akasaki explained how this success was made and what would be the impact of nitride semiconductors on the future world.
The plenary session in the morning of August 1 consisted of two talks. Prof. A. Oshiyama gave a historical review of first-principle calculations on mechanisms of semiconductor epitaxial growth. So far, the crystal growth has been considered as a technology oriented field. But, recent computer development has made it possible to study crystal growth theoretically based on quantum mechanics. Prof. Oshiyama, a leading scientist in this field, explained the frontier of this study very clearly. The second speaker was Prof. K. W. Benz of Freiburg University, who has a long experience with space experiments. He gave a talk on crystal growth under microgravity that included: present results and future prospects towards the International Space Station. Crystal growth in space was one of the most important topics in this conference and he summarized the past works mostly in semiconductor crystal growth and showed the future direction.
IOCG Frank Prizes of ICCG-13 were offered to Prof. Donald T. J. Hurle of Bristol University and Dr. Sam R. Coriell of NIST jointly for their eminent contributions to fundamental aspects of crystal growth. They gave the plenary talks respectively on charged negative point defects in GaAs and other III-V compound semiconductors, and on applications of morphological stability. The IOCG Laudise Prize was offered to Prof. Georg Mueller of Erlangen University for his outstanding contributions to the technological aspects of crystal growth. He gave his plenary talk on experimental analysis and modeling of melt growth processes.
Wednesday evening was the Doshisha Evening. Doshisha University started as a small Christian English school in 1875. It was founded by Joseph Hardy Neesima who studied in Amherst College in New England. Prof. M. Kitagaki, Professor Emeritus, Doshisha University gave a lecture on how Neesima left Japan when the Japanese government closed the country to the outside world and how he studied in the United States. We were impressed very much by the great works done by Neesima in the Meiji era when Japan opened to the outside world. After this lecture, we enjoyed a pipe organ concert of music composed by J. S. Bach, C. Frank and F. Liszt played by Prof. T. Oshibuchi, Professor Emeritus, Doshisha Women's College.
The conference excursion was on Thursday afternoon. We went to Mt. Hiei where we visited Enryakuji Temple, then we had dinner in a restaurant on the shore of Lake Biwa. On the day of the excursion, the temperature on the street of Kyoto was more than 38?, but we could enjoy cool weather on the mountain top. We appreciated the good choice of location for the excursion made by the local committee. On Friday evening, after the plenary lectures given by the IOCG Prize winners and after the IOCG general assembly, we had the conference banquet at the Brighton Hotel. As there were more than 400 attendees, we had to use two separate rooms. However, we prepared a large screen TV monitor in the second room so that every-body in the room could watch all ceremonies and performances carried out in the main room. Music performances by students of Doshisha University brought a very friendly and pleasant atmosphere to the banquet. During the banquet, the IOCG Prize-winning ceremony was conducted and award plates and wood bases painted by lacquer in the traditional Kyoto style were presented to all winners. In the beginning and at the end we heard addresses from ICVGE Chairperson, the new IOCG president, Prof. R. F. Sekerka, the president of Korean Assoc. Crystal Growth, Prof. K. Auh, and the president of Japan. Assoc. Crystal Growth, Dr. S. Kimura. In the final part of the banquet, French and German colleagues explained by video respectively about ICCG-14 to be held in Grenoble and ISSCG-12 in Berlin. Our French colleagues gave us French liqueur that had a nice aroma, whereas our German colleagues gave us a cheerful chorus and a gift of small bears.
There were both scientific and commercial exhibitions during the conference. We had 22 companies that exhibited commercial equipments and products. We had another seven scientific exhibitions including a real-time transmission of high resolution TEM pictures by internet from Ritsumeikan University in Kusatsu city. We enjoyed also the exhibition of Antarctic Meteorites and displays of scientific books by six publishing companies. The photo contest was also a highlight of the conference. We received 38 excellent photographs and the selection for the winners was made by votes from the participants. We had the photo-contest winning-ceremony on the last day, August 4th, in the main conference office.
The closing ceremony took place in the afternoon on the last day. After the closing address by the chairperson of ICCG-13, various statistics of the conference was reported by General Secretary. The number of participants was 1246 including accompanying persons. This number is slightly smaller than that of ICCG-9(Sendai) but the second largest in the history of ICCG. The number of manuscripts we received for the proceedings was 699, which is the largest in the history of ICCG; hence, after negotiations with Elsevier, the size of the proceedings was increased to three volumes. Then, on behalf of the ICCG/ICVGE Organizing Committee thanks was expressed by the chairperson of ICCG-13 to the executive members and program session chairpersons. When the names of those members were called and when they stood up, a full round of applause was given. Lastly, Prof. R. F. Sekerka, the new president of IOCG gave final closing remarks.
It took nearly six years to prepare for this conference. During this period, many persons were involved. But a person on whom the success of this conference depended very much was Prof. T. Ohachi, the ICCG/ICVGE General Secretary. Without his continuing efforts to carry out a large amount of work, we could never organize such a huge conference. Thanks are also due to the many persons who helped the organization, all the members of the ICCG/ICVGE Organizing Committee, Japanese Advisory Board, International Advisory Committee, Executive Committee, Program Committee, Publication Committee, Local Committee, Exhibition Committee, and Fund Raising Committee. We would like to thank JCOM, which is a conference supporting company, for their strong and excellent help over many years, and JTB for arranging the excursions, hotel reservations and travel for participants and other jobs. We would like to thank 57 companies, 6 foundations, and Doshisha University for their financial support, especially in these difficult economic times. Finally, we would like to express our deep thanks to Doshisha University for allowing us to use a large number of nice rooms and facilities and we wish to thank the President, Prof. Hatta, professors, staff, and other workers of Doshisha University who did much volunteer work to support the organization of the conference.
Tatau Nishinaga, ICCG-13 Chairperson
Kiyoshi Takahashi, ICVGE-11 Chairperson